Accessing Cues External
signs that give us information about what we do inside. The signs include breathing, gestures, posture, and eye patterns.
This is “acting as if” something were true. I.E.: Pretending that you are competent at something that you are not, like tennis. The idea is that the pretense will increase your capability.
(As opposed to Digital) Analogue distinctions have discrete variations, as in an analogue watch.
The NLP Technique whereby a stimulus is linked to a response. An Anchor can be intentional or naturally occurring. (See page 46.)
It deals with your relationship to an experience. In a memory, for example, you are associated when you are looking through your own eyes, and experiencing the auditory and kinesthetics at the same time.
To go back and summarise or review what was previously covered, as in a meeting.
Any external verifiable activity we engage in.
Generalisations we make about the world and our opinions about it.
Usually involves the comparison between two different sets of non-verbal cues (external verifiable behaviour). It allows us to distinguish another’s state through non-verbal cues.
As in thinking – moving up or down a logical level. Chunking up is moving up to a higher, more abstract level that includes the lower level. Chunking down is moving to a level, which is more specific. (See Hierarchy of Ideas, page 39.)
This occurs when two statements are considered to mean the same thing, E.G.: “She doesn’t look at me, and that means she doesn’t like me.” (See Meta Model, page 45.)
When the behaviour (external verifiable) matches the words the person says.
That of which we are currently aware.
This is a SubModality process of analysing two sets of SubModalities to discover the Drivers, I.E.: What makes them different. For example the difference between Ice Cream (which the client likes) and Yogurt (which the client does not like) are based on SubModality distinctions. (See page 28.)
(Also called a Meaning Reframe) Giving another meaning to a statement by recovering more content, which changes the focus, is a Content Reframe. You could ask yourself, “What else could this mean?” or “What is something you had not noticed?” (See Meaning Reframe, page 52.)
Giving another meaning to a statement changing the context. You could ask yourself, “What is another context in which this behaviour would be more appropriate?” (See Context Reframing, page 52.)
The NLP word for values – what is important to you. (See Time Line Therapy and the Basis of Personality, 1988.)
Matching a person’s external behaviour with a different movement, E.G.: Moving your finger to match the client’s breathing.
The unconscious basis for the surface structure of a statement. Much of the deep structure is out of awareness.
One of the three major processes (including distortion and generalisation) on which the Meta Model is based. Deletion occurs when we leave out a portion of our experience. (See page 45.)
Digital (As opposed to Analogue) Digital distinctions have distinct variations of meaning as in a Digital watch, or an “On/Off” switch.
It deals with your relationship to an experience. In a memory, for example, you are dissociated when you are not looking through your own eyes, and you see your body in the picture.
One of the three major processes (including deletion and generalisation) on which the Meta Model is based. Distortion occurs when something is mistaken for that which it is not. In India there is a metaphor which explains this: A man sees a piece of rope in the road and thinks it is a dangerous snake, so he warns the village, but there is no snake. (See page 45.)
Downtime occurs whenever we go inside. It can occur when we go internal for a piece of information or when we get in touch with feelings. (See Up Time.)
In SubModalities, drivers are the difference that makes the difference. Discovered through the process of Contrastive Analysis, Drivers are the critical SubModalities, and when changed tend to carry the other SubModalities with them.
In NLP, Ecology is the study of consequences. We are interested in the results of any change that occurs. It is often useful to look at the ecology in making any change as to the consequences for self, family (or business), society and planet.
Inducing a state in a client, or gathering information by asking questions or observing the client’s behaviour.
Eye Accessing Cues
Movements of the eyes in certain directions which indicate visual, auditory or kinesthetic thinking. (See page 23.)
The study of knowledge or how we know what we know.
This is one of the Perceptual Positions. First Position is when you are in touch with only your own inner Model of the World.
A frame sets a context, which is a way we can make a distinction about something, as in As-If Frame, Backtrack Frame, Outcome Frame.
Mentally rehearsing a future result to install a recovery strategy so that the desired outcome occurs.
One of the three major processes (including distortion and deletion) on which the Meta Model is based. Generalisation occurs when one specific experience represents a whole class of experiences. (See page 45.)
When the behaviour (external verifiable) does not match the words the person says.
The outcome of a behaviour.
The content of our thinking which includes Pictures, Sounds, Feelings, Tastes, Smells, and Self Talk.
This sense includes feelings, and sensations.
Law of Requisite Variety
The Law of Requisite Variety states that “In a given physical system, that part of the system with the greatest flexibility of behaviour will control the system.”
After pacing (matching or mirroring) a client’s behaviour, leading involves changing your behaviour so that the other person follows your behaviours.
This is where we go to access information. The Lead System is discovered by watching Eye Accessing Cues.
The level of specificity or abstraction. (E.G.: Money is a lower logical level than Prosperity.)
The category of information. (E.G.: Ducks are a different logical type from Cars.)
Following Contrastive Analysis, Mapping Across is the SubModality process of actually changing the set of SubModalities of a certain Internal Representation to change its meaning. E.G.: Mapping the SubModalities of Ice Cream (which the client likes) over to those of Yogurt (which the client does not like) should cause the client to dislike Ice Cream. (See page 28.)
Deliberately imitating portions of another’s behaviour for the purpose of increasing rapport. (E.G.: If we both raise our right hand, then I am matching you.)
(Sometimes called a Content Reframe) Giving another meaning to a statement by recovering more content, which changes the focus, You could ask yourself, “What else could this mean?” or “What is something you had not noticed in this context which will change the meaning of this?” (See Meaning Reframe, page 52.)
Meta Model means “Over” Model. A model of language, derived from Virginia Satir that allows us to recognise deletions, generalisations and distortions in our language, and gives us questions to clarify imprecise language. (See page 45.)
These are unconscious, content-free programs we run which filter our experiences. Toward & Away From, and Matching & Mismatching are examples of Meta Programs. (See Time Line Therapy and the Basis of Personality, 1988; see also, our NLP Master Practitioner Training Collection.)
A story (analogy or figure of speech) told with a purpose, which allows us to bypass the conscious resistance of the client and to have the client make connections at a deeper level.
The Milton Model has the opposite intent of the Meta Model (Trance), and is derived from the language patterns of Milton Erickson. The Milton Model is a series of abstract language patterns which are ambiguous so as to match our client’s experience and assist her in accessing unconscious resources.
Matching portions of another person’s behaviour, as in a mirror. (E.G.: If you raise your right hand, and I raise my left, then I am mirroring you.)
This generally relates to contradictory behaviour or words, and is one of the Meta Programs.
Modal Operator of Necessity relates to words, which form the rules in our lives (should, must, have to, etc.). Modal Operator of Possibility relates to words that denote that which is considered possible (can, cannot, etc.).
In NLP, a Model is a description of a concept or a behaviour, which includesthe Strategies, Filter Patterns and Physiology so as to be able to be adopted easily.
Modeling is the process by which all of NLP was created. In Modeling we elicit the Strategies, Filter Patterns (Beliefs and Values) and Physiology that allow someone to produce a certain behaviour. Then we codify these in a series of steps designed to make the behaviour easy to reproduce.
Model of the World
A person’s values, beliefs and attitudes that relate to and create his or her own world.
Neuro Linguistic Programming NLP
is the study of excellence, which describes how our thinking produces our behaviour, and allows us to model the excellence and to reproduce that behaviour.
A process word which has been turned into a noun, often by adding “tion”. (See Meta Model, Page 45.)
The sense of smell.
Using a preferred representational system to allow us to gain access to another, E.G.: “Imagine walking (preferred rep system) along the beach and hearing the birds. Now, look down at the sand and feel the cool wet sand beneath your feet.”
Pacing is matching or mirroring another person’s external behaviour so as to gain rapport.
Parts are a portion of the unconscious mind, which often have conflicting beliefs and values. (See page 52.)
An NLP technique, which allows us to integrate parts at the unconscious level by assisting each one to traverse logical levels (by chunking up) and to go beyond the boundaries of each to find a higher level of wholeness. (See page 52.)
Describes our point of view in a specific situation: First Position is our own point of view. Second Position is usually someone else’s point of view. Third position is the point of view of a dissociated observer.
This occurs when there are two words, which sound the same but have different meanings. (See Milton Model, page 39.)
Preferred Rep System
This is the representational system that someone most often uses to think, and to organise his or her experiences.
Presuppositions literally means assumptions. In natural language the presuppositions are what is assumed by the sentence. They are useful in “hearing between the lines” and also for communicating to someone using assumptions that will have to be accepted by the listener so that the communication makes sense. (See page 35.)
Presuppositions of NLP
Assumptions or convenient beliefs, which are not necessarily “true,” but which if accepted and believed will change our thinking and improve our results as an NLP Practitioner. (See page 12.)
Primary Rep System
This is how we represent our internal processing, externally. (It is discovered by listening to Predicates and looking at Physiology.)
Ambiguity, which is created by changing the punctuation of a sentence by pausing in the wrong place, or by running-on two sentences. (See Milton Model, page 39.)
This is a Linguistic Pattern in which your message is expressed as if by someone else. (See also Extended Quotes and Milton Model, page 39.)
The process of Matching or Mirroring someone so that they accept, uncritically, the suggestions you give them. (Originally in Hypnosis ‘Rapport’ had a different meaning, which was, a state where the subject in Hypnosis sees, hears only the Hypnotherapist.) This is not the meaning in NLP where it relates to establishing trust and rapport between two people.
The process of changing the frame or context of a statement to give it another meaning. In selling this process is called, “Answering Objections.”
A thought in the mind which can be comprised of Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Olfactory (smell), Gustatory (taste), and Auditory Digital (Self Talk).
One of the six things you can do in your mind: Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Olfactory (smell), Gustatory (taste), and Auditory Digital (Self Talk).
Resources are the means to create change within oneself or to accomplish an outcome. Resources may include certain states, adopting specific physiology, new strategies, beliefs, values or attitudes, even specific behaviour.
This refers to any state where a person has positive, helpful emotions and strategies available to him or her. Obviously the state implies a successful outcome
Relating to a Perceptual Position: Second Position describes our point of view in a specific situation. Second Position is usually someone else’s point of view. (First Position is our own point of view, Third position is the point of view of a dissociated observer.)
This relates to observational skills. Having Sensory Acuity means that we can notice things about our client’s physiology that most people would not notice. (See page 15.)
Is describing someone’s verifiable external behaviour in a way that does not include any evaluations, but in a way that just relates the specific physiology. E.G.: “She is happy,” is (in NLP terminology) an hallucination. A sensory based description would be, her lips are curved upward at the end, and her face is symmetrical.
Relates to our internal emotional condition. I.E.: A happy state, a sad state, a motivated state, etc. In NLP we believe that the state determines our results, and so we are careful to be in states of excellence.
A specific sequence of internal and external representations that leads to a particular outcome.
These are distinctions (or subsets) that are part of each representational system that encode and give meaning to our experiences. E.G.: A picture may be in Black & White or Colour, may be a Movie or a Still, may be focused or defocused – these are visual SubModalities.
This is a linguistic term meaning the structure of our communication, which generally leaves out the completeness of the Deep Structure. The process is Deletion, Generalisation and Distortion. (See also Deep Structure.)
A two-step strategy, where the two steps are linked together with one usually out of awareness, as in “I want to see how I feel.”
Where it is impossible to tell from the syntax of a sentence the meaning of a certain word. Often created by adding “ing” to a verb, as in “Hypnotising Hypnotists can be easy.”
Relating to a Perceptual Position: Third Position describes our point of view in a specific situation. Third position is the point of view of a dissociated observer. (First Position is our own point of view, Second Position is usually someone else’s point of view.)
Our Time Line is the way we store our memories of the past, the present and the future.
Time Line Therapy™
A specific process created by Tad James, which allows the client to release negative emotions, eliminate limiting decisions and to create a positive future for himself. (See Time Line Therapy and the Basis of Personality, 1988.)
Any altered state. In Hypnosis it is usually characterised by inward one-pointed focus.
That of which you are not conscious, or which is out of awareness.
The part of your mind that you are not conscious of … right now.
Words that are universal generalisations and have no referential index. Includes words such as “all”, “every”, and “never” See Meta Model page 45, and Milton Model, page 39.)
A state where the attention is focused on the outside (as opposed to Downtime where attention is focused inward).
High-level generalisations that describe that which is important to you – in NLP sometimes called criteria. (See Time Line Therapy and the Basis of Personality, 1988.)
Having to do with the sense of balance.
Having to do with the sense of sight.
(Has beeb replaced with Parts Integration.) An NLP technique which allows us to integrate parts at the unconscious level by assisting each one to traverse logical levels (by chunking up) and to go beyond the boundaries of each to find a higher level of wholeness.
Along with the Keys to an Achievable Outcome (see page10), the Well Formedness Conditions (see page 11) allow us to specify outcomes that are more achievable, because the language conforms to certain rules.